Recurrent stereotypical episodes hemiparesis due to ischemia from occluded small penetrating artery. Usually seen with anterior choroidal artery TIA or infarcts.
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TUG test is used to evaluate patients with NPH before and after lumbar tapping. A difference of > 5 seconds is a useful measure for predicting success after shunt surgery. The test involves Timing the time the patient needs to get up from a chair, walk 3 meters and come back to his chair.
Ptosis can have different causes, however with Horner syndrome there will be associated "Reverse Ptosis" which is mild elevation of the lower eyelid, making the palpebral fissure narrower.
At some point you may be consulted for a unilateral hypoglossal palsy after surgery manifesting with tongue paralysis and atrophy. Tapia syndrome is caused by hypoglossal nerve compression from the cuff of the endotracheal tube, resulting in hypoglossal and sometimes recurrent laryngeal palsy.
Syndrome of limb shaking or stiffness due to cerebral hypoperfusion. Usually associated with large artery stenosis or chronic occlusion. May mimic epilepsy but EEG will be normal.
In patients with hemifacial spasm due to peripheral VII cranial nerve lesion, when they close their eyes there is paradoxical elevation of the ipsilateral eyebrow (contraction of frontalis muscle) which can't be produced by patients with somatoform disorders (conversion/factitious)
A systemic disease with extensive IgG4 plasma cell proliferation and lymphocytic infiltration of various organs. For us in neurology, it can cause hypertrophic pachymeningitis. Diagnosis is usually difficult since IgG4 level is elevated in only 50% of patients and biopsy is the gold standard.
Also called idiopathic orbital inflammation, an inflammatory process involving one or more of the extra ocular muscles. Usually responds to steroids. You will need to differentiate it from Tolosa-Hunt and from thyroid orbitopathy.
a rare syndrome with abnormal perception of size and time (metamorphopsia), associated with different lesions affecting parieto-occipital lobes. Encephalitis is the most common cause in children and migraine is more common in adults.